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Контрольная английский язык
Тип: Контрольная  
Тема: Контрольная английский язык
Предмет: Английский язык
Вуз: БГУ
Год, когда сдавалась: 2015
Добавил: Админ
Опубликовано: 26/05/2015

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Вариант 1

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом ив них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.
а)
1. The development of many sciences depends on the knowledge of physical phenomena.
2. The force of friction has stopped the bodies motion.
3. In the course of motion along, a curve the direction of displace¬ment is changing all the time.
4. These two forces acted in the same direction in our experiment.
6)
1. Newton\\\'s Laws of Motion are often referred to at the lectures on Mechanics.
2. This problem is discussed in the book published two years ago.

II. Перепишите я переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, то есть укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.

1. The formulated law is applied in many fields of science.
2. When cooled a substance can be converted from the liquid state into the solid.
3. The amount of heat generated depended on the quality of the fuel used.
4. The problem being considered in this paper is of great significance.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения.

1. They were to give the results of their experimental work as soon as possible.
2. Your investigation must attract attention of all the scientists.
3. Motion may be defined as continuous change of position.
4. A number of substances can absorb considerable amount of gases.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста.Перепишите и письменно переведите 1,2 и 4 абзацы.
MOTION
1. Never before motion has been so important as it is today. In our everyday life we have ob-served many cases when bodies act upon each other. When it is acted upon some force a body begins to move, stops or changes the direction of its motion. However in some cases a body is acted upon by some other body but its state does not change. Then we say that the body is in equilibrium.
2. Motion may be defined as a continuous change in place or position with respect to the posi-tion of some other object or objects if they are at rest. Because no object is really quite motion-less.If houses are at rest relative to the earth\\\'s surface, the earth itself is not motionless. It re-volves about its axis and around the sun; the sun, in its turn, moves relative the stars which are also in a state of motion.A man sitting in a tram may seem motionless to his passengers. In re¬ality all are. moving rapidly with respect to any man in the street.
3. The motion of bodies may be divided into three classes: 1) translation; 2) rotation; 3) vibra-tion or oscillation. A body has a motion of translation when it moves continuously in the same direction. If a body
instead of travelling forward turns on a fixed axis, it has a motion of rotation. The drive wheels of locomotive are moving forward and are at the same time rotating. Therefore they have two motions, one of rotation and the other of translation. Some bodies reverse their motions from time to time and return at regular intervals to their original positions. Such bodies have a motion of vibration or oscillation.
4. Whenever any movement occurs at a constant speed the forces which tend to cause it are balanced by other forces which tend to stop it. If the forces cause motion they are greater than the forces that oppose it. Thus, everybody continues to remain in its state of rest or uniform mo-tion unless it is acted upon some force. Any change of the direction of motion requires a force just a change of speed does.
5 When we speak of movement and speed it is necessary to mention the Unit of Speed in the metre - kilogram - second (MKS) system and in the old English system of units. The Unit of Speed in the MKS system is one metre per second (m/s). The corresponding unit in the English system of units is one foot per second (ft/s).

Вариант 2

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассив-ных конструкций.
а)
1 Today scientists are stilt looking for the substance as a source of energy.
2 The direction of motion has changed but the body continues its motion.
3 The development of physics resulted in the appearance of today\\\'s cinema, television, radio and so on.
4 These forces will cause the motion of a body.
6)
1 Heat energy is transmitted in two different ways.
2 The discovery of electron was followed by the investigation of its properties.

II. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и устано-вите функции каждого из них, то есть укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.
1 The forces of two bodies acting on one another are always equal in magnitude and oppo-site in direction.
2 The plant equipped with modern machinery overfulfilled its plan last month.
3 When placed in a vessel a gas fills it completely.
4 A computer solving a lot of problems was designed by a group of students.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения.
1. Energy can exist in many forms and each form can be transformed into the other.
2. A force may cause a change in the size or shape of a body.
3. You have to define the direction of a force.
4. Everybody must know the temperature measuring devices.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 6-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1,3,4 и 6 абзацы.
WORK, FORCE, POWER AND ENERGY
1. In the language of science such words as \\\"work\\\", \\\"energy\\\" \\\"force\\\" and \\\"power\\\" have defi-nite meanings, they differ from the meanings that are often given to them in everyday life.
2. In physics energy is defined as the ability to do work. When a body is capable to perform work, it possesses energy. It is quite clear that the more work a body can do, the more energy it possesses. You use energy when you walk. It takes energy to carry something, You can do noth-ing without using energy. There are numerous forms of energy such as: elec¬trical, chemical, me-chanical, heat energy and so on. All they are useful to us. We use heat energy to heat our homes, electrical energy changes to light and sound.
3. Mechanical energy, in its turn, can be potential and kinetic. The ki¬netic energy of a body is the energy of motion. The potential energy of a body is the energy of position. It is quite possi-ble to transform one form of energy into another. Energy is measured in the same units as work and like work is a scalar quantity.
4 Work and energy are closely connected. Work is both an everyday word and a scientific term. In mechanics work is defined as the scalar product of a force multiplied by the distance through which that force acts. In other words, work is a product of force and displacement in the direction offeree. Work is done when a force is acting over a distance. In this case time is not taken into account.
5 An action of one body upon another which changes the state of rest or motion of the body acted upon is called force. The term force is a general term for any push or pull. A force is always exerted on a body by another body. There are three elements of determining a forcev namely, the direction of a force, its magnitude and point of its application. Forces агел\\\'есгог quantities.
6 When we are speaking of power, time is taken into account, Power means the rate at which work is done in a unit of time. Power is related to both work and energy. The English unit of power is called the horsepower.

Вариант 3

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на пере-вод пассивных конструкций.
а)
1. The reactor Js fast becoming a major source of heat and electricity.
2. This young scientist makes great contribution to\\\'mathematics.
3. The scientist Jiasjjubjished the fundamental principles of his in¬vestigations.
4. He sjarted his investigations of the properties of a new compound.
б)
1. The law of gravitation was discovered by Newton.
2. A lot of industrial machines \\\"will be made of various plastics.

II. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, то есть укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью сказуемого.
1. Physios is the science studying the various phenomena in nature.
2. The substances jnvestigated showed quite interesting properties.
3. When heated a magnet loses some of its magnetism.
4. The elements predicted by Mendeleyev were later discovered by scientists from different countries.

III. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент.
1. These new materials had to withstand much higher temperatures than metals.
2. Wejnust use new methods in our research work.
3. He coujd jiot complete his research in time as he worked very slowly.
4. This power station will have to supply us with all necessary energy.

IV. Прочтите и устно переведите с 1-го по 6-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1,3,4 и 6 абзацы.
MECHANICS
1. Mechanics is a branch of physics. Mechanics deals with the motion and equilibrium of bodies. It also establishes mathematical equations which describe motion in terms of distance and time. The principles of mechanics are required by engineers in the construction of a motor-car, a building, an aeroplane, etc.
2. The word \\\"mechanics\\\" implies a connection with machinery, It deals with the laws of mechani-cal motion. When a body changes its position in respect to other bodies, we say it is in motion. We call this relative change in position of a body mechanical motion. Motion takes place in space and in time, therefore space and time are inseparable from matter in motion.
3. Mechanics studies a variety of problems associated with motion as well as with force. It consists of two main parts: kinematics and kinetics, The latter, in its turn, is divided into statics and dynamics.
4. Kinematics determines the trajectory which the points of a moving body describe, the position of any one of its points in its trajectory, its speed, acceleration, etc., in short, the relationship between the geometric elements of motion and time, independent of the forces that act on the body in motion. Engineers solve many problems, such as the setting of a lathe and other machine-tools through kinematics. Kinematics studies the nature of motion of a body and the forces that act on the body, or in other words, determines the forces that cause the motion.
5. Dynamics deals with the motions of bodies. Motion is connected with the ideas of length and time. The force is the agent which causes bodies to change their direction or speed of motion.- Dynamics is the study of the forces which keeps an airplane in flight. It also studies such concepts as work, power energy and therefore it is of great use in many branches of engineering.
Statics is that part of kinetics which studies bodies in a state of equilibrium. In statics we investi-gate the conditions under which the forces that act on a body come into equilibrium and the consequent state of rest., This part of mechanics is of great use in different branches of en¬gineering especially in civil en-gineering, for, if engineers know these conditions, they can ensure rigidity and strength to the structures they design and build.

Вариант 4

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассив-ных конструкций.
а)
1. After the engineer had made all the necessary calculations he began to work/at the new project.
2. During some decades of the last century scientists were making a close study of the structure of nat-ural rubber.
3. This gjant will produce a new type of machines.
4. The development of machine-tools accelerated the industrial revolution.
б)
1. His scientific paper will be spoken about at the end of the discussion.
2. Much attention was also paid to the interior of the house.

II. Перепишите и переведите следующее предложения, подчеркните Participle I и Participle П и устано-вите функции каждого из них, то есть укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого.
1. Matter composed of any chemical combination of elements is called a compound.
2. The smallest particle having all the characteristics of an element is called an atom.
3. The translated article is devoted to electrical furnaces. Speaking about the new methods of work the engineer told us many interesting details.

III. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент.
1. Heat can be divided into three different types.
2. A great number of plastics should Had their applications in the electrical industry.
3. An electronic machine has to be used to make these calculations.
4. Both elements were to be used in this experiment.
IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 6-й абзацы текста.Перепишите и письменно переве-дите 1,3, 4,6 абзацы.
PHYSICS
1. Physics is one of the most ancient sciences about nature. It is the science studying various phenomena. All the changes that take place in nature are natural phenomena. Its object is to determine exact relations between phys-ical phenomena.In physics we call every object a physical body or simply a body. Bodies consist of matter but can differ in materials and in the quantity.
2. Modern physics is the science of motion of bodies, energy and different sound, thermal, electric, magnetic, light, optical phenomena. We study all these phenomena in the following branches of physics: mechanics, sound, heat, electricity and magnetism, light, atomic and nuclear physics.
3. Physios is divided into two great branches: experimental and theoretical physics. The task of the former is to make observations and carry out experiments. On the basis of the experimental facts theoretical physics is to for-mulate laws and predict the behaviour of natural phenomena. Every law is based on experiments, therefore, it is important for the experiments to be done very accurately.
It was the study of natural phenomena that made it possible to formulate various laws.
4. Physics has a long history. The history of this science begins with Galileo. He introduced the two princi-ples that made mathematical physics possible: the law of inertia and parallelogram law. The law of inertia, now familiar as Newton\\\'s first law of motion made it possible to calculate the motions of matter by means of the law of dynamics alone.
5. After Newton the first novelty in physics was Plank\\\'s introduction of the quantum constant h. Another novelty followed in 1905, when Einstein published his theory of relativity.
6. Physics is one of the main sciences about nature and the development of many other sci-ences depends on the knowledge of physical phe¬nomena. Physics together with mathematics and chemistry forms the foundation for all branches of engineering.
Discoveries in physics are very important for engineering. They resulted in the appearance of to-day\\\'s cinema, television, radio, various machines and mechanisms, artificial earth satelites and space-ships.

Вариант 5

I. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом нз них глагол-сказуемое Н определите его видо-временную форму и залог. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассив-ных конструкций.
а)
1. Astronomers have measured the exact length of the day.
2. Newton gathered the results of the experiments which had been, made by many other sci-entists and investigators.
3. The boiling point of water depends upon the pressure in the vessel in which the water is boiling.
4. This plant was making various kinds of instruments during last five years.
6)
1. They are given the data illustrating friction.
2. His works and investigations in the field of theoretical mechanics are always referred to.

II. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните Participle 1 и Participle II и уста-новите функции каждого из них, то есть укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частые глагола-сказуемого.
1. Matter consists of one or a number of basic elements accruing nature.
2. When hated to a certain temperature, this alloy increases in volume.
3. The atoms form combinations known as molecules.
4. Reading English technical papers one can meet various abbreviations.

III. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент.
1. A computer should solve complicated problems many millions of times faster than a math-ematician.
2. New types of plastics had to be obtained for space technology.
3. A moving body can do work by virtue of its speed.
4. These students will be allowed to perform this work by the end of this month.
IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста.Перепишите и письменно переве-дите 2,4,5 абзацы.
FRICTION
1. From everyday experience people have learned that the amount of energy which is required to pull a load across в surface depends on the character of the surface. It is much easier to pull a cart over an asphalt road than over road which is cobbled. When an object is moving in respect to another against which it is pressed with a certain force it gives rise to a force which is opposing the motion. This force is called friction. Hence the resistance to the motion of two bodies in contact with one another is determined by friction. Friction may prevent the motion entirely or it may make-the relative acceleration of the surfaces less than it otherwise would be.
2 In general, friction can have any direction and its direction at a given moment is suclj as to oppose the motion of a body or its tendency to motion. At any rate, friction always manifests itself as a force that opposes motion. .It causes losses in every engine and machine. Part of the useful mechanical energy is transformed into useless heat because of friction. In addition to that, it wears away metal in the moving parts, making repairs necessary.
3. Engineering, in its turn, tries to overcome these losses by various means. In order to de-crease friction in the working parts of the machines, their fictional surfaces are lubricated and ball bearings or another bearings are introduced. In case it in necessary, a great part of the heat developed due to friction may be carried off by means of circulating water or air blasts.
4. In fact, friction in the moving parts of all mechanical devices brings endless difficulties. In certain cases friction becomes a helpful necessity but not only causes wear and losses. But for friction our world would be strange. Without friction between the tires and the road, a car could not move. It would be impossible to walk, nor even to stand up in spite of all our efforts, to build houses using present-day methods. Nails would fall out, screws and bolts would not hold because they require friction.
5. So friction is a complex physical phenomenon. In some cases friction may be detrimental, in many other cases it is frequently a necessity. There are several types of friction, namely, sliding friction and rolling friction, static and kinetic friction.
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